Kushandiswa kweRubber muMotokari

Special rabha yakatsiva zvakajairwa zvigadzirwa zverabha muminda yakawanda, kunyanya muindasitiri yemotokari, nekuita kwayo kwakakosha uye kwakanakisa.Zvinoenderana nezvinodiwa zvezvikamu zvakasiyana zverabha zvemotokari, akasiyana akakosha erabha zvinhu zvinofanirwa kusarudzwa zvinoenderana.

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Yakasiyana-siyana yakakwirira-kumanikidza rabha hose yemotokari zvishoma nezvishoma iri kutora yakakosha rabha kuti isangane nepamusoro pekuita zvinodiwa

Kune akawanda mativi erabha anoshandiswa mumotokari uye anotamba mabasa akasiyana mumotokari masisitimu.Semuenzaniso, tepi inoshandiswa pakufambisa kufambisa, zvisimbiso zvinoshandiswa kutsigira radial kana kudzokorora zvikamu zvinofamba, gaskets uye O-mhete zvinoshandiswa kunama mafuta kana mafuta, hose dzerabha dzinoshandiswa kutakura zvinwiwa kana magasi, uye diaphragms inoshandiswa kudzora. mvura kana magasi.Izvo zvinodiwa zvemhando uye kushanda kwerabha inoshandiswa zvakasiyana nekuda kwekushandiswa kwakasiyana.Izvo zvinhu zvichasarudzwa zvinoenderana nekumira kwayo murazvo, kuramba kwemafuta, kupisa kupisa, kuderera kwekushisa kushanduka uye kugona kuvhara.Dzimwe nguva, zvinhu zvakasiyana zvinogona kusarudzirwa mudziyo mumwe chete, kunyanya zvichienderana nekushisa kwekushandisa, mafuta emafuta nemhando dzemafuta uye dhizaini yemotokari.

Injini yemotokari
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Bhandi renguva

Bhandi renguva rinoshandiswa kutyaira crankshaft cam kuti imhanye zvinoenderana.Kuenzaniswa neketani yesimbi, bhanhire rinopindirana rinogona kuderedza zvinonzwika ruzha rwekubatana pakati pebhandi uye sprocket, haidi lubrication, uye ine hunhu hwekureruka.Panguva imwecheteyo, nekuda kwekuchinjika kwayo, inogona zvakare kushandiswa kune akawanda axis drive.MuJapan, kupfuura 70% yemotokari dzinoshandisa mabhandi e-synchronous, asi muEurope, vanopfuura 80% vanoshandisa mabhanhire e-synchronous.

Pakutanga, bhandi rerubha rinoenderana rainyanya kuvharwa neoprene (CR).Zvisinei, hydrogenated butadiene rubber (HNBR) ine mamwe mabasa epamusoro, saka yakashandiswa zvakanyanya mumabhandi emotokari anowirirana.Kubata kwakazara kweHNBR kwakakwirira pane kweCR, uye ine yakagadzikana yakaoma modulus, yakanaka yakaderera-tembiricha kuita, kupisa kupisa uye ozone kuramba, yakanakisa flex resistance uye yakanaka kuramba mafuta mutembiricha yakawanda.

Muyedzo yetepi basa rekuedza, kupisa kwekudzivirira kweHNBR kwakakwira 40 ° C kukwira kupfuura kweCR inovhara rabha pasi penguva imwe chete yekushanda.Panguva imwecheteyo, hupenyu hwebasa hweHNBR hwakapetwa kaviri hweCR, uye kusimba kwayo kunodarika 100000 km.

Zvisimbiso uye gaskets

Iyo yekuisa chisimbiso inonyanya kushandiswa kudzivirira kubuda kwemvura kana zvimwe zvinhu.Dzimwe nguva simbi, plastiki kana jira rinoshandiswa kugadzira zvisimbiso, asi kazhinji rubber inoshandiswa.Kana petroleum akatevedzana ekuzora oiri achishandiswa injini uye masisitimu ekufambisa, zvinhu zvekuisa chisimbiso zvinowanzonzi butadiene rubber (NBR), acrylate rubber (ACM), silicone rubber (VMQ) kana fluororubber (FPM).

Injini yemafuta inoda hupenyu hurefu hwebasa, yakaderera viscosity (mafuta ekuchengetedza), kunyorovesa kunyorova pasi pekushisa kwakanyanya, etc. Naizvozvo, mafuta einjini anowanzo ane zvakasiyana-siyana zvekuwedzera.NBR ichakuvadzwa zvakanyanya munharaunda yekuchenesa mumiriri, anti-aging agent uye anti-wear agent, nepo HNBR, FPM uye ACM inogona kuchengetedza kuita kwakanaka kwesimba mushure mekunyudzwa mumafuta ane zvinowedzera pakupisa kwakanyanya kwenguva yakareba.Kunyange zvazvo simba rekusimba re ACM rakaderera, rinogona kuchengetedza kushanda kwakagadzikana mune zvose zvinowedzera kunze kwe alkyl phosphate uye lead naphthenate.Iyo yemuviri zvimiro zveFPM haina kukwirira, asi ine yakanakisa kupisa kupisa uye kuramba mafuta.Simba rekusimba reHNBR ndiro rakakwirira pakati pemarubha aya, uye kuramba kwayo kune zvakasiyana-siyana zvinowedzera zvakare ndiyo yakanyanya kunaka.Chete zinc dithiophosphate ine zvishoma mhedzisiro pairi.

Kwenguva yakareba, indasitiri yemotokari yave ichishandisa NBR uye cork rubber kugadzira gaskets einjini, asi ikozvino inonyanya kushandisa ACM neVMQ kusangana nezvinodiwa zvekupisa kupisa, kuisa chisimbiso uye kusimba kusimba.Mumamiriro ezvinhu akajairwa, VMQ iri nani pane ACM mune yakaderera tembiricha kuchinjika uye kupisa kuramba, asi VMQ inopfava zvakanyanya mushure mekunyudzwa muoiri yeinjini kwenguva yakareba.Kusiyana neizvi, FPM ne ACM hazvina kuderera.

Oiri radiator hose uye pombi yekuendesa mhepo

Iyo rabha chubhu yekuzora mafuta radiator uye chubhu yerabha yemafuta radiator inonyanyo umbwa yemukati rabha NBR uye yekunze rabha CR.Kuti uvandudze kudzivirira kupisa, chlorinated ether rubber (ECO) uye chlorinated polyethylene (CM) yakashandiswawo, uye ikozvino ACM neAEM inoshandiswa zvakanyanya.Iyo pombi yekuendesa mhepo uye pombi yekudyara inofanirwa kuve nekuchinjika kwakanaka, kuramba kwemamiriro ekunze, kubatwa nekuvhunduka, vacuum kudonha kuramba uye kuramba mafuta.Elastomers (zvakadai seCR, NBR/PVC, EPDM, ECO, CM, ACM) uye thermoplastic elastomers (sekusanganiswa kwepolyester, polypropylene uye EPDM) inosarudzirwa chinangwa ichi, zvichibva pane zvakasiyana dhizaini zvinodiwa zvemotokari dzakasiyana.

Fuel system uye hydraulic system

Rubber hose yehuni system

Iyo mafuta system inowanzo umbwa nemafuta tangi, sefa, pombi uye yekubatanidza pombi.Iyo pombi yekutakura mafuta inogona kugadzirwa nesimbi, thermoplastic (kazhinji polyamine) kana rabha yakasimbiswa.

1) Fuel hose

Parizvino kune marudzi maviri emafuta ekupa masisitimu: carburetor uye mafuta jekiseni pombi.NBR kana NBR/PVC (PB) yakagara ichishandiswa seglue yemukati uye CR seglue rekunze rerubha hose inoshandiswa mucarburetor system.Mamiriro acho haana kushanduka kusvika peturu ine yakakwira inonhuhwirira yemukati yaiswa mukushandiswa.Gasoline ine yakakwira inonhuhwirira yemukati inokonzeresa kutsemuka kwemukati NBR, iyo inogona kugadziriswa nekushandisa mvura NBR seplasticizer isina kubviswa.

Sezvo tembiricha yekamuri yeinjini inokwira, guruu rekunze repombi yemafuta rachinja kubva kuCR kuenda ku chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSM) kana trimer ye epichlorohydrin ethylene oxide allyl glycidyl ether (GECO), uye iyo ozone kuramba uye kupisa kupisa kweGECO kunogona yakavandudzwa nekuwedzera zvinyorwa zve allyl glycidyl ether (AGE) muGECO.GECO ikozvino yave kushandiswa zvakanyanya seyekunze rabha remafuta erabha chubhu.Kuenzaniswa neCR neCSM, ichiri neyakagwinya simba ozone kuramba mushure mekubviswa nemafuta ekuyedza.

Mugadziriro yejekiseni yemafuta, pane kunyanya marudzi maviri ehosi dzerabha: hose yerubha yepamusoro-soro pakati pepombi yemafuta nevharuvhu yejekiseni, uye yakaderera-pressure rubber hose pakati pedhigirii regulator netangi remafuta.Iyo yemukati rabha ye-high-pressure rubber hose inotora FPM, nekuti ine yakaderera peturu permeability, yakanaka oxidation peturu kuramba uye yakanakisa kupisa kupisa.FPM kana HNBR ichashandiswa kune yemukati layer ye low-pressure rubber hose.Kana ichienzaniswa neFPM, HNBR haina mafuta ekufambisa, asi mutengo wayo wakaderera.Kana ichienzaniswa neNBR, HNBR ine simba repamusoro rekusimba uye zvirinani kuzere zvivakwa zvemuviri mushure mekunyura mu oxidized peturu.

2) Oiri filler rubber chubhu

Iyo hose yekuzadza inobatanidza chivharo chekuzadza uye tangi yemafuta inogara yakagadzirwa nePB.Munguva pfupi yapfuura, FPM trimer yemukati rabha uye GECO yekunze rabha jekiseni hose yakagadziridzwa kuti iwedzere kudzikisa peturu kupera.Izvi zvinonyanya kukosha mumamiriro ezvinhu ekuwedzera kuomesera kwemitemo.

3) Volatile rubber hose

Iyo inoputika chubhu yehubhu inogadzirwa nezvinhu zvakafanana nechubhu yerubha inoshandiswa kune mafuta system ye carburetor, kureva, NBR inowanzoshandiswa seyemukati rabha uye CR sekunze kwerabha.

4) Kudzora rubber chubhu (inobatanidza vacuum control valve uye suction manifold)

Matatu emhando dzerubha zvinhu zvinoshandiswa paipi yekudzora, zvichienderana nekupisa kwekushandisa.Nekuwedzera kwekushisa kwekushanda, zvinhu zvinoshanduka kubva kuNBR/CR kuenda kuGECO kusvika ACM.Rudzi rutsva rwe ACM komputa yakagadziridzwa, ine yakanaka yakazara yemuviri zvivakwa.

Zvisimbiso uye diaphragms zvehuni masisitimu

Iyo mafuta pombi diaphragm ndeye yakajairika mafuta pombi chimiro mu carburetor system.Kuti ukwanise kumira nekupisa kweinjini, iyo diaphragm haifanire kungove nekusimba kwakanaka mupeturu, asi zvakare kuve nekupisa kupisa.Zvishandiso zvaishandiswa kuve NBR nePB zvashandurwa kuita HNBR neFPM, nekuti peturu inodzivirira oxidation inodiwa.Kune zvisimbiso, NBR, PB, HNBR uye FPM inogona kushandiswa kuvhunduka, insulators uye zvisimbiso zvemafuta.Chinhu chinoshandiswa chinoenderana nekupisa kwekushandisa chaiko.

Zvigadzirwa zverabha zve hydraulic steering system

Hydraulic steering system ine marudzi maviri emabhosi erabha: high-pressure rubber hose pakati pepombi yemafuta uye gearbox;Yakaderera kumanikidza rabha hose pakati pegiya bhokisi uye mafuta tangi.Munguva yakapfuura, NBR neCR yaishandiswa semukati wemukati uye kunze kwekunze kwemahosi maviri erabha zvakateerana.ACM kana CSM yave kushandiswa kune yemukati layer yepasi-pressure rubber hose kunatsiridza kupisa kwayo.Iyo itsva high-pressure rabha hose inoumbwa neHNBR yemukati layer rabha uye CSM yekunze layer rabha ine nani inodzivirira kupisa pane yapfuura rabha hose.

Zvigadzirwa zveRubber zve air conditioning systems

Kana firiji iri CFC12, rabha remukati rerubha chubhu iNBR uye rekunze rabha iCR.Iye zvino firiji uye mafuta ekuzora zvakashanduka, zvinoda kushandiswa kwezvinhu zviri nani, uye hose yerabha yakashanduka kubva pamatanho maviri kusvika kune matatu.Iro yemukati ine kupisa kwakanyanya uye kuderera kwemhepo, iyo yepakati ine yakaderera permeability, uye kunze kwekunze kune kupisa kwakanyanya uye kusagadzikana kwemamiriro ekunze.Mapaipi erabha anoshandiswa pari zvino matinji matatu emapombi erabha, anoti, PA neEPDM musanganiswa, IIR neEPDM kana akagadziridzwa PA masanganiswa, IIR uye chlorinated IIR (CIIR).

Zvisimbiso zverabha zvinoshandiswa pamhepo yekumisikidza compressor zvisimbiso zvinoda kuve nepamusoro zvinonyungudutsa, zvese CFC-12 neHFC-134a.Hapana chinhu chimwe chete cherabha chinogona kumira mafiriji maviri panguva imwe chete, asi iyo yakasanganiswa zvinhu inogona kuzadzisa ichi chinodiwa.Nyaya iyi inonzi RBR (material resistance kune mafiriji maviri).

Indasitiri yemotokari yakaisa mberi uye yepamusoro zvinodiwa kune akasiyana siyana.Special rabha ine kupisa kwekupisa, hupenyu hurefu hwebasa, kuderera kwekupinda uye kupfeka kwakanyanya kuramba kuchashandiswa zvakanyanya muindasitiri yemotokari.


Nguva yekutumira: Nov-09-2022